Infinito singolare (Italian Edition)
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Lalamer Isabel added it Aug 12, Rita L. Franco Vite marked it as to-read Nov 23, Sinoma marked it as to-read Jan 06, Ali added it Jan 11, Roberta Zanella marked it as to-read Sep 25, Ilenia Zedda marked it as to-read Feb 14, Silvia Mocci marked it as to-read Feb 19, Barbara marked it as to-read May 22, Valentina Sarais marked it as to-read Jul 14, Jack marked it as to-read Jul 11, Grazia Manuelli marked it as to-read Dec 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Sergio Atzeni. Sergio Atzeni. Born in Capoterra, southern Sardinia, he moved to Cagliari where, as a journalist, he worked for some of the most important Sardinian newspapers.
He also became a member of the PCI Italian Communist Party , but later left the party, being disullusioned with politics. In , he died in Carloforte while swimming in the sea during a holiday back in Sardinia. All of Atzeni's works are set in Sardinia and were written in Italian. He experimented different techniques and styles across his novels. Most notably, he used a very original language that fused elegant literary Italian and the "patter" used by the working-class in Cagliari and Sardinia, where many words and sayings are borrowed from the Sardinian language. In this way Atzeni reproduces the immediacy of the spoken language in his novels.
In some of his novels e. Haden Elgin, S. Hjelmslev, L. Jakobson, R. Traduits du russe par M. Fretz Paris: Flammarion pp. Kramarae, C. Kurylowicz, J. Lakoff, R. Lepschy, G. Leumann, M. McConnell-Ginet, S. Martinet, A. Martyna, W. Meillet, A. Miller, C. British Edition Revised by S. Pieroni Bortolotti, F. Sabatini, A. Spender, D. Stewart, D. In the sentence: Il re ama la regina The king loves the queen. Some verbs take an Indirect Object. For example, in the sentence: Il re d un regalo alla regina The king gives a gift to the queen - "regalo" gift is the direct object and "alla regina" to the queen is the indirect object.
Types of Sentences: Declarative sentences are statements; these sentences are sometimes referred to as positive sentences to distinguish them from negative sentences. Joselo non voule dormire Joselo doesn't want to sleep Loro non parlano cinese They don't speak Chinese Non ho paura di chiccessia I'm not afraid of anybody. Che cos la semiotica? What is semiotics? Sar grigio e piovoso il mese? Will the month be dull and rainy? Sar un esame difficile? Will it be a difficult exam? Qual il numero di Roberto? What is Robertos number? There are of course other ways of expressing negation, as well.
Here is a chart with negative expressions in English and their Italian equivalent:. Non Not in America non mangiamo i cani in America we do not eat the dogs non cambiare una virgola not to change a single word Non Creane uno! No account yet? Create one! Neither money nor power can make you happy n io n lui abbiamo visto quel film Neither I nor he have seen that film non I'm not at all in love of your boy! I'm not crazy at all, I never could fall in love with him. This is simply obtained by adding a uestion mark at the end of the sentence, while in speech only the inflection of the voice expresses a question.
In spoken language, the question will be expressed by simply raising the pitch of the voice while approaching the end of the sentence, especially stressing the last one or two words The only situation in which words change order is when verb essere to be introduces a copula, expressing a quality, a condition, etc. The verb and the copula go before the rest of the sentence, and the subject is postponed. However, all of the questions above have implied either a yes or no answer. To ask questions that require more than a yes or no answer, you generally have to use a question word.
Here is a list of some English question words and their Italian equivalents:. Dove studia? Che ora? What time is it? A che ora la lezione? At what time is the lesson? Chi in casa? Who is in the house? Perch torni a scuola? Why do you return to school? In quale universit studi?
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At which university do you study? Quanti studenti ci sono in classe? How many students are there in the classroom? Che and cosa are abbreviated forms of che cosa. The forms are interchangeable: o o o Che cosa bevi? What are you drinking? Che dici? What are you saying? Cosa fanno i bambini? What are the children doing? Scivol e cadde sul pavimento. He slipped and fell on the floor. E joins two verbs Si muoveva velocemente ma silenziosamente. He moved quickly but quietly. Ma joins two adverbs Possiamo andare attraverso il fiume o attraverso i boschi. We can go over the river or through the woods.
O joins two adverbial phrases Ieri sera and a casa e trov le finestre rotte. She went home last night and found the windows broken. E joins two clauses. Entrambi Maria ed io andremo alla festa. Both Maria and I will go to the party Non solo diede regali a tutti noi, ma anche ci invit alla festa. She not only gave all of us presents, but she also invited us to the party N I soldi n il potere possono farti felice. Neither money nor power can make you happy Sia mio marito che io possiamo portarti a casa. Either my husband or I can drive you home. Following is the list of commonly used subordinate conjunctions:.
Non lo vide dopo che lui ebbe lasciato la citt. She never saw him after he left the town Prese la multa perch guidava troppo veloce.
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He got a ticket because he was speeding Una volta che hai lavato lauto asciugala bene. Once you have washed the car, dry it very well Si ammal gravemente da quando ebbe l'incidente. She became very ill, since she had her accident Non va mai ai festini, a meno che sua moglie non vada con lui. He never goes to parties unless his wife comes with him Aspetteremo dentro fino a che la smette di piovere. We will wait inside until the rain stops.
The complexity comes with the number of tenses and persons. There is no gender distinction in Italian verbs unlike nouns, which have two genders. However, there are six personal forms per tense three persons: first, second, third; and two numbers: singular, plural. There is two verb tenses:. Simple tenses:The simple tenses are verb tenses that consist of one word only, such as the present tense. Compound tenses:The compound tenses i tempi composti are verb tenses that consist of two words, such as the passato prossimo present perfect.
The conjugated forms of verbs agree with the person and number of the subject. There are two numbers singular and plural and three persons. First person is the speaker; second person is the one spoken to; third person is the one spoken about. For example, for the present tense:. There are four simple tenses: Present tense: The Italian present tense presente is happening right now.
It's a simple tense that is, the verb form consists of one word only. Imperfect tense: The imperfect is much more frequently used in Italian than in English. It expresses the English "used to" and is used to describe actions or conditions that lasted an indefinite time in the past. It's also used to express an habitual action in the past and to describe time, age, and weather in the past.
Giocavo a calcio ogni pomeriggio I played soccer every afternoon Sempre credevano tutto They always believed everything Volevamo andare in Italia We wanted to go to Italy Il cielo era sempre blu The sky was always blue. Simple Past tense: Or remote past tense passato remoto ; is a simple tense and is formed by one word. In general, it refers to the historical past or to events that have happened in the distant past relative to the speaker.
Dante si rifugi a Ravenna Dante took refuge in Ravenna Petrarca mor nel Petrarca died in Michelangelo nacque nel Michelangelo was born in Future tense: The future tense in Italian expresses an action that will take place in the future. Although in English the future is expressed with the helping verb "will" or the phrase "to be going to," in Italian a verb ending marks it as being set in the future tense.
Alla fine di settembre partir per Roma At the end of September I will leave for Rome Che sar, sar what will be, will be! Avevo chiuso le finestre quando cominciato a piovere I had shut the windows when it started to rain La macchina sbandava perch aveva piovuto The car was sliding because it had rained. Dare un colpo di telefono Dare per scontato Darsi del tu Fare il bagno To have what it takes to be a champion To be fed up with something or someone Come on! To telephone To take for granted To speak to each other informally To take a bath. Fare benzina Fare colazione Fare due passi Fare la doccia Fare una foto Fare quattro chiacchiere Fare un salto Farsi un nome Farsi in quattro Essere a secco Essere gi di morale Essere in piena forma Essere fuori di s Essere fuori di testa Essere tagliato per un lavoro In bocca al lupo Lasciare stare; Lasciare perdere Mettersi in proprio Mi prendono i cinque minuti Non mi fa n caldo n freddo Non mollare Osso duro Passarsela bene Prendere in giro Tenere duro Un tipo in gamba A chi tocca?
Tocca a noi. Vecchia roccia. To get gasoline To have breakfast To take a walk To take a shower To take a photograph To chat To drop by someone or somewhere To become well known To work very hard To be out of money or gasoline To feel down To feel great; be in great shape To be angry To be out of control; nut To be cut for the job Good luck; break your leg To give up To set up on one's own I become furious, enraged It doesn't make any difference for me Don't give up Tough cookie To have a good period in life To pull one's leg To hold on, don't give up A smart, capable person Whose turn is it?
It's our turn. Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. An English Grammar, By W. Baskervill and J.
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Jump to Page. Search inside document. Examples: il professore the teacher. Examples: la casa the house. Examples: La sedia the chair you are talking about a specific chair Il telefono verde The telephone is green. Examples Le stanze sono grandi The rooms are big. Number Inflections for Nouns: There are many rules to obtain the plural of italian nouns; but, generally, the plural is derived according to the following rules: For regular masculine nouns that end in -o, the ending changes to -i in the plural.
Examples: For masculine nouns Singular fratello libro nonno ragazzo For Femenine nouns Singular casa penna pizza ragazza Plural fratelli libri nonni ragazzi Plural case penne pizze ragazze English brothers books grandfather boys English houses pens pizzas girls The plural forms of some nouns end in -e will end in -i regardless of whether these nouns are masculine or feminine.
The types of object pronouns are: Italian Italian Italian Italian subject pronouns object pronouns possessive pronuns relative pronouns Subject Pronouns: Subject Pronouns are often omitted, since the verb form indicates the subject: Ho freddo I'm cold Since the endings of conjugated verb forms indicate person and number, subject pronouns may be omitted in Italian except when necessary: 1 for clarity, 2 when modified by anche also , or 3 when emphasis or contrast is desired.
Examples: o o o Io ho freddo I, for my part, am cold Lui detesta il film He hates the movie Vorrebbe Lei venire con me? Below you can see a table with subject pronouns: Persons 1st. Plural noi we voi you Loro You loro them loro them essi them m. In Italian the forms of the direct object pronouns i pronomi diretti are as follows: Person 1st. Le You f. Examples: o o o Li ho invitati a cena I have invited them to dinner L'ho veduta ieri I saw her yesterday Ci hanno guardati e ci hanno seguiti They watched us and followed us In a negative sentence, the word non must come before the object pronoun.
Why dont you invite them?
Examples: o o o o o o un bicchiere di vino a glass of wine la citt di Roma the city of Rome il libro di Paolo Paul's book literally: "the book of Paul" la madre di Roberto Robert's mother io sono di Roma I am from Rome i due ragazzi sono di Berlino the two boys are from Berlin A: "A" means "to" indirect object and movement or "in", indicating location cities and places. Examples: o o o Vivo in una bella citt I live in a beautiful city. Examples: o o o Sono con te I'm with you ho comprato il libro con pochi soldi I bought the book with little money il bambino era con un adulto the child was with an adult Su: "Su" means "on to ", "over".
Examples: o o I libri sono su un banco The books are on a desk. Examples: o o o Questo regalo per te This present is for Davide Ho un biglietto per il teatro I have a ticket for the theatre Il pacco per la signora the parcel is for the lady Tra-fra: "Tra" and "fra" mean "between" or "in" followed by a time expression. Examples: o o o o o o o o Vado in Italia con la mia famiglia I will go to Italy with my family. Lei parla piano piano She speaks very softly In Italian, most verbs end in a common pattern, such as -are, -ere, and -ire. La grande citt the large town. La citt grande the large town.
More examples: La macchina rossa the red car Le macchine rosse the red cars Il divano rosso the red sofa I divani rossi the red sofas Endings for adjectives: - Adjectives ending in -o have four forms. Examples: Il libro verde the green book La porta verde the green door I libri verdi the green books Le porte verdi the green doors There are quite a few other exceptions for forming plural adjectives. Singular Ending -ca -cia -cio -co -scia -scio Examples: Plural Ending -che -ce -ci -chi -sce -sci Singular Ending -ga -gia -gio -glia -glio -go Plural Ending -ghe -ge -gi -glie -gli -ghi pacifico pacific m pacifici pacific pacifica pacific f pacifiche pacific largo large m larghi large larga large f larghe large vecchio old m vecchi old vecchia old f vecchie old bianco white m bianchi white bianca white f bianche white There are only 3 irregular adjectives: buono good , bello beautiful, nice , quello that.
In Italian, many adverbs are formed by adding the ending -mente which corresponds to the suffix -ly to the feminine form of the adjective: Adjective masc. Below we have a list of those adverbs. Examples: Ho appena chiamato I just called Mi sono iscritto all'universit quattro anni fa I entered the university four years ago Questa mattina sono uscito presto This morning I left early Il Petrarca ha scritto sonetti immortali Petrarca wrote enduring sonnets Future perfect: The futuro anteriore or future perfect tense is a compound tense.
Gi erano partiti quando sono arrivato They had already left when I arrived Avevo chiuso le finestre quando cominciato a piovere I had shut the windows when it started to rain La macchina sbandava perch aveva piovuto The car was sliding because it had rained Past anterior trapassato remoto : Known in English as the preterite perfect, is used primarily in literary contexts. Examples: o o o amare - to love.
They are: - affinch, perch, cosicch, in modo che in order to, so that - senza che without - prima che before Below we have a list of the most common conjunctions: Italiano a meno che The "congiuntivo" is also required with particular expressions such as: Impersonal forms necessario che, bisogna che, importante che IRE 2nd. Examples: Non suggerisco che Examples: o o o quest'aereo this airplane quest'aula this classroom quell'autostrada that highway Questa is sometimes shortened to "sta" and contracted with the noun it modifies: o questa sera this evening stasera this evening Demonstratives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify, and always precede them: Questo libro this book Quella casa that house More examples: Quel film che ti ho raccomandato si chiama "La vita bella".
The Demonstrative Pronouns are: Masc. Examples: Singular il mio amico my friend male il nostro amico our friend male la mia amica my friend female la nostra amica our friend female Plural i miei amici my friends males i nostri amici our friends males le miei amiche my friends females le nostre amiche our friends females Demonstrative Adjective this, these, that, those : See [Italian Demonstrative Adjectives] for a deeper explanation and some examples of this topic. Examples: o o i miei amici my friends.
Pronoun mine yours yours hers,his, its ours yours yours theirs Yo can see that mio, tuo and suo behave like normal adjectives except in the masculine plural. Examples: o o la mia automobile veloce my car is fast here my acts as an adjective for the noun car la loro lenta theirs is slow here theirs is a pronoun, meaning their car, not mentioned il suo gatto prese un topo his cat caught a mouse anche il tuo prese un topo also yours caught a mouse il vostro albero alto your plur. These phrases will surely prove to be very useful in your Italian conversations: o o o o o Che Che Che Che Che bei fiori!
The more usually exclamation pronouns are: che! Examples: quanto! Below is a list with the "Ten more used Italian Expressions": Mamma mia! The Adverbial Present Participle or gerund "gerundio" is formed by adding a suffix to the verb stem: ARE verbs add "-ando". Example: dorm-endo sleeping Adverbial participles answer questions about the action expressed by the main verb.
Examples: o Sbagliando si impara One learns by making mistakes answering the question, "How does one learn? They are used like English present participles to form progressive tenses with the verb "stare": o o Sto parlando I am talking Present progressive, answering the question, "What am I engaged in doing? Examples: o o o o o Cosa stai facendo? In print interjection is usually followed by an exclamation mark or a comma: suvvia!
ITAL301i: Italian Language: Written and Reading Skills
Examples: o o Ahi! Below You have some tips will help you to sound like you were born in Italy: Usually, Italian words are stressed on the next-to-the-last syllable. In Italian there are many of onomatopoeic sounds, for example: Animal name Le api bees Gli uccelli birds I gatti cast I pulcini chicks Le mucche cows I corvi crows I cuculi cuckoos I cani dogs Gli asini donkeys Le oche geese Le rane frogs Le galline hens I cavalli horses I topi rats I galli roosters Le pecore sheeps Sound name ronzano buz cinguettano chirp miagolano mew pigolano muggiscono low gracchiano caw abbaiano bark ragliano bray starnazzano honk gracidano croak cakle and cluck nitriscono neigh or whinney squittiscono squeak crook belano bleat Onomatopoeia zzzzzz cip cip.
Examples: o o o o o Parlo con Andrea Im talking with Andrea I libri sono su un banco The books are on a desk Compra la frutta e la mangia He buys the fruit and eats it Parlo bene litaliano I speak Italian well Domenica studio Im studying on Sunday Negative sentences express a negation. Examples: o o o Joselo non voule dormire Joselo doesn't want to sleep Loro non parlano cinese They don't speak Chinese Non ho paura di chiccessia I'm not afraid of anybody Interrogative sentences are questions.
la is the definite article that corresponds to feminine nouns. Examples:
Examples: o o o o Che cos la semiotica? Here is a chart with negative expressions in English and their Italian equivalent: Non Not in America non mangiamo i cani in America we do not eat the dogs non cambiare una virgola not to change a single word Non When is Roberto returning? Examples: o o o o Entrambi Maria ed io andremo alla festa. Following is the list of commonly used subordinate conjunctions: perch because quando when mentre while appena che as soon as una volta che once that come as se if Examples: sebbene although a condizione che at the condition that a meno che unless dopo che after that before that prima che fino a che until o o o o o o Non lo vide dopo che lui ebbe lasciato la citt.
There is two verb tenses: Simple tenses:The simple tenses are verb tenses that consist of one word only, such as the present tense. For example, for the present tense: Persons 1st. Person 2nd. Person 3rd. Examples: regalo il libro a Stefania I give the book to Stephanie i due ragazzi sono di Berlino the two boys are from Berlin scrivo con una penna I write with a pen ho un biglietto per il teatro I have a ticket for the theatre Imperfect tense: The imperfect is much more frequently used in Italian than in English.
Dante si rifugi a Ravenna Dante took refuge in Ravenna Petrarca mor nel Petrarca died in Michelangelo nacque nel Michelangelo was born in Future tense: The future tense in Italian expresses an action that will take place in the future. Vecchia roccia To get gasoline To have breakfast To take a walk To take a shower To take a photograph To chat To drop by someone or somewhere To become well known To work very hard To be out of money or gasoline To feel down To feel great; be in great shape To be angry To be out of control; nut To be cut for the job Good luck; break your leg To give up To set up on one's own I become furious, enraged It doesn't make any difference for me Don't give up Tough cookie To have a good period in life To pull one's leg To hold on, don't give up A smart, capable person Whose turn is it?
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